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Cristian Butnariu



Nicolae Ceausescu



  • The Last Romanian Dictator? –



Volume One





“The foetus is the property of the entire society. Anyone having children is a deserter who abandons the laws of national continuity.” ― Nicolae Ceausescu



Table of Contents:

  1. Chronology

  2. A chronology of the last 100 days of Ceausescu

  3. The Economic Legacy of Ceausescu

  4. Over planned Parenthood: Ceausescu’s Cruel Law

  5. Caligula and Ceausescu

  6. The Ceausescu Era

  7. Ceausescu’s Journey to the East

  8. Adrian Paunescu Eulogising Nicolae Ceausescu

  9. Transcript of the Closed Trial of Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu

  10. The December Revolt and the Coup d’état – 1989

  11. Word of Support from Moscow

  12. Day-by-day History of the Romanian Revolution

  13. The Proclamation of Timisoara

  14. Romania President Regrets Ceausescu’s Hasty Trial

  15. Why Ceausescu fell?

  16. A Clear and Present Danger to Democracy:

  17. The Department of External Information (DEI)

  18. Is Communism Dead in Eastern Europe?

  19. What’s next?

  20. Interview with Valentin Ceausescu

  21. Post World War II History of Romania

Editor’s note:

Nicolae Ceausescu:

Was born in 1918 early became active in the Romanian Communist movement and was arrested as a revolutionary; he spent the late 1930s and early 40s in prison, where he became acquainted with the future first secretary of the Romanian Communist party, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej.



Escaping in 1944, Ceausescu held a variety of posts within Communist party and government ranks after the Communist takeover in 1948. He soon became a member of the party's central committee and then, in 1955, a member of the politic bureau. Upon Gheorghiu-Dej's death in March, 1965, he was chosen first secretary of the central committee of the Communist party and in December, 1967 he assumed the office of president of the state council, or head of state. As supreme leader, he continued his mentor's policy of nationalism and independence from the USSR within the context of Marxism-Leninism.



He promoted closer relations with the People's Republic of China and with the West, as well as industrial and agricultural development. His domestic rule, however, was marked by frequently disastrous economic schemes and became increasingly repressive and corrupt. In December, 1989, a popular uprising, joined by the army, led to the arrest and execution of him and his wife, Elena.



Chronology

Nicolae Ceausescu, was the leader of Romania from 1965 until he was overthrown and killed in the revolution of 1989. Early in his life he played an active role in the Communist party, which resulted in imprisonment in 1936 and 1940. In 1939 he married another highly devoted Communist, Elena Petrescu. Once the Communists fully gained power in Romania in 1947, Ceausescu headed the nation's ministry of agriculture and served as deputy minister of the armed forces.

Eventually he rose up to the second highest position in the party, holding important posts in the Politburo and Secretariat. After GheorghiuDej's death in 1965, Ceausescu became the leader of the state and president of the State Council. In the 1960s he ended Romania's participation in the Warsaw Pact and condemned the invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union.

After becoming President in 1974, Ceausescu began to run the country in a militant fashion. His secret police held tight control of free speech and the media. In 1982 he ordered most of Romania's products to be exported in order to pay off a ballooned foreign debt due to his mismanagement. The lack of agricultural and industrial resources crippled the country and the lack of medicine, food, energy, and other basic necessities drove the people to the brink of starvation, while the Ceausescu's outrageous consumption continued unabated.

The population finally rebelled when Ceausescu ordered his forces to fire on anti-government demonstrators in Timisoara. On December 22, 1989 he and his wife were captured and on Christmas Day they were both executed by a firing squad.



Elena Ceausescu:

Was born on January 7, 1919. Born into a poor family - her father was a ploughman - her formal education ended after the fourth grade. In the 1930s she met her future husband Nicolae while being active in an underground Communist party.

They were then married in 1939 and from that point on they were a team, never parting. Nicolae appointed her to the Nation Council of Scientific Research. Two years later Elena was awarded her Ph.D. in industrial chemistry despite having had other people do the work for it.

All her supposed scholarly achievements and awards were entirely fraudulent. Indeed, she was seen many times dozing off, open mouth, when scientific papers were discussed. In 1980 she was appointed the first deputy Prime Minister in the Council of Ministers, the number two position behind her husband. By the time Elena started to gain power in her husband's government the country was starting its downfall.

She lived her life with countless luxuries, including 40 homes, even as the Romanian people faced deprivation. In the end, the much despised Elena was executed by her husband's side on December 25, 1989.



Nicolae Ceausescu

1918, Nicolae Andruta Ceausescu was born in Scornicesti village, January 26 Olt County, Oltenia (southwestern Romania).

1919, Elena Petrescu born, Petristi village, Ilfov County, January 7 Wallachia, (southern Romania).

1929, Eleven year old Nicolae Ceausescu moves to Bucharest to work as shoemaker's apprentice.

1932, Nicolae Ceausescu joins Romanian Workers Party.

1933, June Nicolae Ceausescu represents the "democratic" youth of Bucharest at an anti-fascist conference and is elected to the national Anti-Fascist Committee, a front organization for the RWP.

1933, Ceausescu first arrested for inciting a strike and distributing November pamphlets against state order.

23

1934, June Ceausescu arrested again for collecting signatures protesting the Craiova trial of the Grivisa railroad workers.

1934, August Ceausescu jailed for third and fourth time. In his police file he is now described as a "dangerous communist agitator" and an "active distributor of communist and anti-fascist propaganda."

1935 Exiled from Bucharest, Ceausescu is confined to Scornicesti. Instead he goes underground and returns to Bucharest and political organizing.

1936, May

Ceausescu is tried in Brasov with a group of "anti-fascists."

One of the accused, V. Tarnovski, protests so vehemently that the court excludes him from the trial. Ceausescu declares his support of Tarnovski and incites other defendants to follow his example.

He is given a six month sentence for his interruption and excluded from the rest of the trial.


1936,

June 6

Ceausescu sentenced to two years in Doftana prison, plus six months for contempt of court, a fine of 2,000 lei, and a year of forced residence with his parents.

1939, August

Ceausescu spreads communist slogans at a meeting organized by Bucharest leather and footwear workers' guild.

Secret police records of the meeting reportedly show that the "communist Elena (Lenusa) Petrescu, a worker of the 'Jacquard factory,' spoke to the workers demanding "bread and justice."

1940, July

Ceausescu sent to Jilava prison, near Bucharest, for political organizing.

1940,

November

26-27

Iron Guard attack on Jilava prison kills 64 prisoners.

Communists are saved as they are protected by prison guards, whom they had radicalized. Ceausescu is particularly seen as responsible for this.

1943, August

Ceausescu transferred to concentration camp at Tirgu Jiu where he is interred with Communist leaders, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, Chivu Stoica, and Ion Gheorghe Maurer.

1944, August Released from the concentration camp at Tirgu Jiu.

Appointed head of Union of Communist Youth.

1944, First article "The United Front of Youth" appears. September 22

  1. Brigadier General, Romanian Army.

  2. Elena and Nicolae married.





1969, August U.S. President Richard M. Nixon visits Romania and 1-2 Ceausescu in first foray abroad of his presidency.

1971, June - Ceausescu visits China and North Korea, meeting Mao Tse Tung and Kim Il Sung. Begins modelling his personality cult after theirs.

1972, April - Ceausescu, on visit to Cairo, meets with Anwar Sadat, Yasser Arafat, and other members of Palestine Liberation Organization to begin mediation of Mid-East war. (May) Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel, visits Romania for meeting with Ceausescu.



1974, March 28- Position of President of the Republic created especially for Ceausescu, who is then named President for life by Grand National Assembly.



1974, October - "Law for the territorial, urban, and rural systemization" of Romania is passed. This is first envisaged as "depopulation of some less developed villages and increased housing and population densities in other rural settlements, destined eventually to become future centres of urbanization".



1975 - Elena Ceausescu becomes Director of the Institute of Chemistry of the Romanian Academy.

1979 - Elena becomes ex official member of President's cabinet through her chairmanship of the National Council of Science and Technology. Romania is approximately 10 billion dollars in debt to Western banks for large scale industrialization of the 1970s. Ceausescu announces goal to eliminate debt within a decade.


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